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"Reforming Healthcare by preventing diseases through next generation vaccines”.

Dr. Peter L. Nara

dr naraDr. Nara is currently Chief Executive Officer, President, Chairman & co-founder of Biological Mimetics, Inc., a biotechnology company founded to translate the theory of “Deceptive Imprinting” and the “Immune Refocusing” Technology, discovered by Dr. Nara and colleagues, into preventative vaccines, novel immuno-therapeutics and diagnostics in both human and veterinary medicine. Prior to this position, Dr. Nara was formerly the Section Chief of the Vaccine Resistant Diseases Section, Division of Basic Sciences, Office of the Director at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.

Dr Nara’s scientific contributions include to date over 21 book chapters and 163 scientifically peer-reviewed publications.  He was elected as a Fellow to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2011. His laboratory at the National Cancer Institute was designated both a National and International AIDS Reference Laboratory by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program on AIDS; he initiated an international effort which characterized over 120 HIV-1 isolates for future vaccine and clinical trial site development from epidemic centers around the world; his laboratory was designated the first of five  HIV-1 Immunotyping laboratories; Dr. Nara was made group leader and chairman for the WHO Network for HIV Isolation and Characterization. He is a regular member of the National Academy of Science, Institutes of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Defense, and Centers for Disease Control, and served as a recent member of the U.S. State Department BioIndustry Initiative Program, the Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CDRF) and the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) for non-proliferation of biological agents. He was a Howard Hughes, Ciba Corning, and Miles Invited Lecturer;  nominated by Dr. Jonas Salk, he was elected and served as Founding President of the International Society for Vaccines 1994-2002; he was the founding conference chairman for the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (Annual Conference on Vaccine Research); he serves on the editorial boards of the leading virology, AIDS, vaccine, immunology, comparative microbiology and pathogenesis  journals, and is the inventor or co-inventor on 7 issued U.S. patents. In 2007 he was nominated as Biotechnology Executive of the Year in Frederick County, Maryland and in 2008 Biological Mimetics, Inc., was a finalist as small firm of the year by the State of Maryland Technology Council. From 2007-2014 he served on the board of the prestigious National Foundations for Infectious Diseases in Washington D.C.

Dr. Nara’s formal education and training include his Bachelor of Science in 1977 from Colorado State University, a Master of Science in Immuno-pharmacology in 1979 from The Ohio State University, a combined Doctor of Veterinary Medicine in 1984 and Doctorate of Philosophy in Retrovirology and Immunology in 1986 from The Ohio State University. After graduating from veterinary school he received a combined 4-year National Institutes of Health (NIH) medical post-doctoral fellowship at the National Cancer Institute, and a 4-year Comparative Pathology Residency at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington D.C. (1986-1990). He was acting Head of and Cancer Virus Expert of the Virus Biology Section in the Office of the Institute’s Director from 1990-1992 and was tenured and promoted to Section Chief of the Vaccine Resistant Diseases Section from 1993-1998.

Published works of Dr. Nara (a partial list)

  1. Nara, P.L., Nara, D., Chaudhuri, R., Lin, G, and Tobin, GJ Perspectives on advancing the field of vaccinology at the wild, domestic, laboratory, veterinary and human interface: Not missing the opportunities. (Vaccine, in press 2008).
  2. Nara, P. L. and Lin, G. 2008, Deceptive Imprinting of Microbial pathogens: Epitope regulation and immune evasion of the immune response. Nature Immunology (in preparation-2008)
  3. Tobin GJ, Trujillo JD, Bushnell RV, Lin G, Chaudhuri AR, Barrera J, Pena L, Grubman MJ, and Nara, P.L. Deceptive imprinting and immune refocusing in vaccine design. ( Vaccine, in press 2008).
  4. Lin G, Nara PL.    Designing immunogens to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.  Curr HIV Res. 2007 Nov;5(6):514-41. Review.
  5. Gay CG, Richie TL, Pastoret PP, Minguez-Tudela I, de Baetselier P, Göbel T, Goddeeris B, Kaiser P, Morrison I, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, Anderson K, Baillie LW, Brown WC, Estes DM, Herrera E, Nara PL, Ockenhouse CF, Roth JA, Sztein MB.  Advances in immunology and vaccine discovery report of the United States-European Commission workshop. Vaccine. 2007 Oct 10;25(41):7007-11. Epub 2007 Aug 6.
  6. Cyril G. Gay and Thomas L. Richie, et. al  Nara, P.L. Advances in Immunology and Vaccine Discovery: Report of the United States–European Commission Workshop Vaccine, Volume 25, Issue 41, 10 October 2007, Pages 7007-7011.
  7. Nara PL, Lin G. HIV-1: the confounding variables of virus neutralization. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord. 2005 Jun;5(2):157-70. Review.
  8. Ruppach, H., Nara. P.L., Raudonat, I., Elanjikal, Z., Rubsamen-Waigmann, H., and Dietrich, U. HIV-positive sera taken shortly after seroconversion neutralize the autologous HIV-1 isolates on primary macrophages, but not on lymphocytes. J. of Virology 2000 Jun;74(12):5403-11.
  9. Sirko-Osadsa, D.A., Conley, S., Goldberg, A.D., Nara, P.L. and Ehrlich, G. Chimeric HIV-1 envelope proteins suggest interaction with non-envelope proteins in determining antibody neutralization phenotype.  Virology. 2001; 76:123-130.
  10. Kohler H, Muller S, Schiffer M, Nara PL. Few clues for AIDS vaccines from structural data on gp120 and its receptors and antibodies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1999 Mar 1;20(3):315-6. No abstract available.
  11. Muller,S., Margolin,D., Min,G., Lou,D.,Nara, P.L., Axthelm,M. and Kohler, H. 1998. Stimulation of antiviral antibody response in SHIV-IIIB-infected macaques.
    Scand J Immunol. 2001 Oct;54(4):383-95.
  12. Muller, S. Margolin,D.H., Nara, P.L., Alvord, G. and Kohler,H. Stimulation of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies in Simian HIV-IIIB-infected macaques. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:276-281, 1998
  13. Nara PL. Deceptive imprinting: insights into mechanisms of immune evasion and vaccine development. Adv Vet Med. 1999;41:115-34. Review. No abstract available.
  14. Nara PL. The status and role of vaccines in the U.S. food animal industry. Implications for biological terrorism. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;894:206-17. Review.
  15. Nara, P.L. and Garrity, R.R.. Deceptive Imprinting: a cosmopolitan strategy for complicating vaccination. Vaccines. 16(19): 17801787. 1999
  16. Pinto, L.A., Berzofsky,J.A., Fowke, K.R., Little,R.F., Merced-Galindez, F.,  Humphrey,R.S., Ahlers,J., Dunlope, N., Nara, P. L., Shearer, G.M., and Yarchoan, R. 1999. HIV-specific immunity following immunization with HIV synthetic envelope peptides in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. AIDS 13:8559- 1999.
  17. Tsai WP, Kung HF, Nara PL. The presence and absence of histocompatibility antigens in HIV type 1 produced by autologous blood-derived macrophages and peripheral blood lymphoblasts. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999 Jan 1;15(1):33-41.
  18. Shankarappa,R., Gupta, P., Learn, G.H., Rodrigo, A.G., Rinaldo, C.R., Gorry, M.C.,   Mullins, J.I., Nara, P.L., and Ehrlich, G. Evolution of Human Immundeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Sequences in Infected Individuals with Differing Disease Progression Profiles. Virology 1998 Feb 15; 241(2):251-9
  19. Wu SC, Spouge JL, Nara PL Increase of primary HIV-1 production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by intermittent medium replenishment Biotechnol Prog 1998 May; 14(3): 540-542.
  20. Ahlers, J.D., Dunlop, N., Alling, D.W., Nara, P.L., and Berzofsky, J.A.  Cytokine-in-adjuvant steering of the immune response phenotype to HIV-1 vaccine constructs: GM-CSF and TNFa synergize with IL-12 to enhance induction of CTL. J.  Immunol., 158:3947-3958, 1997.
  21. Boyd, M.R., Gustafson, K.R., Gulakowski, R.J., McMahon, J.B., Wu, L., Shoemaker, R.H., Cardellina II, J.H., Buckheit Jr., R.W., Nara, P.L., Pannell, L.K., Sowder II, and R.C., Henderson, L.E.: Discovery of cyanovirus-N, a novel HIV-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Inactivating protein that binds viral surface envelope glycoprotein gp120; potential applications to microbicide development.     Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.  41: 1521-1530, 1997.
  22. Garrity, R.R., Rimmelzwaan, G., Minassian, A., Dunlop, N., Wu, S.-C., Tsai, W.-P., Goudsmit, J., and Nara, P.L. Refocusing neutralizing antibody response by targeted dampening of an immunodominant epitope.  J.  Immunol..  159:279-289, 1997
  23. Girard, M., Ryst, E., Barre-Sinoussi,F., Nara, P., Tartaglia,J., Paoletti, E., Blondeau,C., Jennings, M., Verrier, F., Meigner,B., and Fultz,P. Challenge of Chimpanzees Immunized with a Recombinant Canarypoz-Hiv-1 Virus. Virology.232: 98-104, 1997.
  24. Huang, X., Barchi, Jr.,J., Lung,F.T., Roller, P., Nara, P.L., Muschik,J.and Garrity,R.R. Glycosylation affects both the three-dimensional structure and antibody binding properties of the HIV-1IIIB gp120 peptide RP135.  Biochemistry. 36: (no.36) 10846-10856,1997.
  25. Tsai, W.-P., Rimmelzwaan, G.F., Merges, M.J., Wu, S.-C., Conley, S., Kung, H.-F., Garrity, R.R., Goudsmit, J., and Nara, P.L. Preliminary findings of an in vitro human spleen mononuclear cell culture system for primary isolates of HIV-1. AIDS and Human Retroviruses.  13:1997.
  26. Ahlers, J.D., Dunlop, N., Pendleton, C.D., Newman, M., Nara, P.L., and Berzofsky, J.A.: Candidate HIV-1 multideterminant cluster peptide-P13MN vaccine constructs elicit Th1 helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and neutralizing antibody, all using the same adjuvant immunization. AIDS Res.Hum. Retroviruses 12: 259-272, 1996.
  27. Heeney, J., Bogers, W., Buijs, L., Dubbes, R., ten Haaft, P., Koornstra, W., Niphuis, H., Nara, P., and Teeuwsen, V.: Immune strategies utilized by lentivirus infected chimpanzees to resist progression to AIDS.  Immunol. Lett. 57: 45-52, 1996.
  28. O’Toole, C., Muller, S., Nara, P., and Kohler, H.: Immunological mechanism for HIV-1 gp120 vaccine failure.  J. Infect. Dis. 173: 512-513, 1996.
  29. Tsai, W.-P., Conley, S.R., Kung, H.-F., Garrity, R.R., and Nara, P.L. Preliminary in vitro growth cycle and transmission studies of HIV-1 in an autologous primary cell assay of blood-derived macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.  Virology, 226: 205-216, 1996.
  30. Wu, S.-C., Spouge, J.L., Merges, M.J., Conley, S.R., and Nara, P.L.: A cytopathic infectivity assay of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in human primary macrophages.  J. Virol. Methods, 59: 45-55, 1996.
  31. Girard, M., Meignier, B., Barre-Sinoussi, F., Kieny, M-P., Matthews, T., Muchmore, E., Nara, P.L., Wei, Q., Rimsky, L., Weinhold, K., and Fultz, P.N.:  Vaccine-Induced Protection of Chimpanzees Against Infection by a Heterologous Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1.   J.Virol. 69:  6239-6248, 1995.
  32. Hogervorst, E., DeJong, J., Van Wijk, A., Bakker, M., Valk, M., Nara, P., and Goudsmit, J.: Insertion of primary syncytium-inducing (SI) and non-SI envelope V3 loops in human immunodeficiencty virus type 1 LAI (HIV-1LAI) reduces neutralization sensitivity to autologous, but not herologous HIV-1 antibodies.  J. Virol. 69:  6342-6351, 1995.
  33. Kohler, H., Muller, S., and Nara, P.: Why AIDS vaccines that induce humoral immunity may not work.  The Immunologist 3: 32-34, 1995.
  34. Muller, S., Schwartz, D., Wang, H-T., Wang, Q.L., Kohler, H., Pahwa, S., Tovo, P-A., and Nara, P.: Expression of an HIV-1 infection related idiotype/clonotype in antibodies directed to envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1:  Early and concomitant idiotype increase in antibodies against the homologous vaccine strain.  Vaccine Res. 4: 1-15, 1995.
  35. VanCott, T.C., Polonis, V.R., Loomis, L.D., Michael, N.L., Nara, P.L., and Birx, D.L.: Differential role of V3-specific antibodies in neutralization assays involving primary and laboratory-adapted isolates of HIV-1.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 11:  1379-1391, 1995.
  36. Wu, S-C., Spouge, J.L., Conley, S.R., Tsai, W-P., Merges, M.,and Nara, P. Human plasma enhances the infectivity of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages.   J. Virol.69: 6054-6062,. 1995
  37. Barbas III, C.F., Hu, D., Dunlop, N., Sawyer, L., Cababa, D., Hendry, M., Nara, P.L., and Burton, D.R.:  In vitro evolution of a neutralizing human antibody to HIV-1 to enhance affinity and broaden strain cross-reactivity.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91:  3809-3813, 1994.
  38. Burton, D.R., Pyati, J., Koduri, R., Sharp, S.J., Thornton, G.B., Parren, P.W.H.I., Sawyer, L.S.W., Hendry, R.M., Dunlop, N., Nara, P.L., Lamacchia, M., Garratty, E., Stiehm, E.R., Bryston, Y.J., Cao, Y., Moore, J.P., Ho, D.D., and Barbas III., C.F.  Efficient neutralization of primary isolates of HIV-1 by a recombinant human monoclonal antibody.  Science 266: 1024-1027. 1994
  39. D'Souza, M.P., Geyer, S.J., Hanson, C.V., Hendry, M., Milman, G., and ASP Collaborating Investigators: Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1 by neutralization and binding assays:  An international collaboration.  AIDS 8: 169-81, 1994.
  40. Garrity, R.R., Rimmelzwaan, G., Minassian, A., Tsai, W.-P., Conley, S., Dunlop, N., DeJong, J., Keulen, W., Goudsmit, J., and Nara, P.: Introduction of Potential N-linked Glycosylation into the V3 domain of HIV-1 gp120: Effects on virus viability; antigenicity; and immunogenicity.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 10: S1: 37, 1994.
  41. Garrity, R.R., Minassian, A., Rimmelzwaan, G., Tsai, W.-P., Dunlop, N., Conley, S., Goudsmit, J., and Nara, P. N-Linked epitope masking results in shift in neutralizing response away from V3 to V1.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 10: S3: 286, 1994.
  42. Golding, H., D'Souza, P., Bradac, J., Mathieson, B., Fast, P. and ASP collaborating investigators: Neutralization of HIV-1.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 10: 633-643, 1994.
  43. Hariharan, K., Nara, P.L., Shabazz, L.A., McCutchan, J.A., and Kang, C-Y.:  Analysis of B cell repertoire specific to the neutralizing epitopes of glycoprotein 120 in HIV-infected individuals.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 10: 1629-1637, 1994.
  44. Jurriaans, S., Van Gemen, B., Weverling, G.J., Van Strup, D., Nara, P., Coutinho, R., Koot, M., Schuitemaker, H., and Goudsmit, J.: The natural history of HIV-1 infection: Virus load and virus phenotype independent determinants of clinical course?  Virology 204: 223-233, 1994.
  45. Kang, C-Y., Hariharan, K., Nara, P.L., Soddroski, J., and Moore, J.P.:  Immunization with a soluble CD4-gp120 complex preferentially induces neutralizing anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibodies directed to conformation-dependent epitopes of gp120.  J. Virol. 68:  5854-5862, 1994.
  46. Kohler, H., Muller, S., and Nara, P.: Deceptive imprinting in the immune response against HIV-1. Immunol. Today, 13:  475-428 1994
  47. Lin, H.J., Myers, L.E., Yen-Leiberman, B., Jackson, J.B., Henrard, D., Hooper, C., Kokka, R., Kwok, S., McQuay, L.J., Nara, P., Rasheed, S., Reichelderfer, P., Winters, M.A., Vahey, M., Coombs, R.W., and Hollinger, F.B.:   Multicenter evaluation of methods for the quantitation of plasma HIV-1 RNA.  J. Infect. Dis.  170:  553-562, 1994.
  48. Minnassian, A.A., Garrity, R.R., Tsai, W.-P., Conley, S., and Nara, P. T cell clonotypic tropism of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 10: S3: 105, 1994.
  49. Muller, S., Schwartz, D., Wang, H-T., Want, Q.L, Kohler, H., Pahwa, S., Tovo, P-A., and Nara, P.: Why AIDS vaccines that induce humoral immunity may not work.  The Immunologist 3: 32-34, 1994.
  50. Pincus, S.H., Messer, K.G., Nara, P.L., Blattner, W.A., Colclough, G., and Reitz, M.: Temporal analysis of the antibody response to HIV envelope protein in HIV-infected laboratory workers.  J. Clin. Invest. 93: 2505-2513, 1994.
  51. Ahlers, J.D., Pendleton, C.D., Dunlop, N., Minassian, A., Nara, P.L., and Berzofsky, J.A.:  Construction of an HIV-1 peptide vaccine containing a multideterminant helper peptide linked to a V3 loop peptide 18 inducing strong neutralizing antibody responses in mice of multiple MHC haplotypes following two immunizations. J. Immunol. 30:  5647-5663, 1993.
  52. Akerblom, L., Nara, P., Dunlop, N., Putney, S., and Morein, B.:  HIV experimental vaccines based on the Iscom technology using envelope and gag gene products.  Biotechnology Therapeutics 4: 145-161, 1993.
  53. Back, N.K.T., Smit, L., Schutten,M., Nara, P.L., Tersmette, M., and Goudsmit, J.:  Mutations in human immunodeficiency virus gp41 affect sensitivity to neutralization by gp120 antibodies.   J. Virol. 67:  6897-6902, 1993.
  54. Hariharan, K., Nara, P.L., Caralli, V.M., Norton, F.L., Haigwood, N., and Kang, C-Y.: Analysis of the cross-reactive anti-gp120 antibody population in HIV-infected individuals.  J. Virol. 67:  953-960, 1993.
  55. Kang, C-Y., Hariharan, K., Posner, M., and Nara, P.:  Identification of a new neutralizing epitope conformationally affected by the attachment of CD4 to gp120.  J. Immunol. 151:  449-457,1993.
  56. Ammann, A., Bolme, P., Borkowsky, W., Bryson, Y., Castelli, G., Bianchi, L.C., D'Argenio, P., Delgado, A., De Maria, A., Duse, M., Ehrnst, A., Fenyo, E.M., Goedert, J., Guzzanti, E., Halapi, E., Livadiotti, S., Mathieson, B., Moschese, V., Mulder, G., Mullins, J., Nara, P., Nkowane, B., Pardi, G., Peckham, C., Rubinstein, A., Rossi, P., Scarlatti, G., and Semprini, A.:  Maternal factors involved in mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1.  J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5:  1019-1029, 1992.
  57. Barbas, C.F., Bjorling, E., Chiodi, F., Dunlop, N., Cababa, D., Jones, T.M., Zebedee, S.L., Persson, M.A.A., Nara, P.L., Norrby, E., and Burton, D.R.: Recombinant human Fab fragments neutralize human type I immunodeficiency virus in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 89: 9339-9343, 1992.
  58. Chamat, S., Nara, P., Berquist, L., Whalley, A., Morrow, W.J.W., Kohler, H., and Kang, C-Y.:  Two major groups of neutralizing anti-gp120 antibodies exist in HIV-infected individuals:  Evidence for epitope diversity around the CD4 attachment site.  J. Immunol. 149:  649-654, 1992.
  59. Fultz, P.N., Nara, P., Barre-Sinoussi, F., Chaput, A., Greenberg, M.L., Muchmore, E., Kieny, M-P., and Girard, M.:  Vaccine protection of chimpanzees against challenge with HIV-1 infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Science 256:  1687-90, 1992.
  60. Girard, M., Kieny, M.P., Barre-Sinoussi, F., Nara, P., Muchmore, E., and Fultz, P.N.: La vaddination experimentale contre le HIV-1 protege le chimpanze contre l'injection d'epreuve de lymphocytes infectes.  Bull. Acad. Med. 176: 921-935, 1992.
  61. Hansen, B.D., Nara, P.L., Maheshwari, R.K., Sidhu, G.S., Bernbaum, J.G., Hoekzema, D., Meltzer, M.S. and Gendelman, H.E.:  Loss of infectivity by progeny virus from alpha interferon-treated human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells is associated with defective assembly of envelope gp120.  J.Virol., 66:  7543-7548, 1992.
  62. Kang, C-Y., Nara, P., Chamat, S., Caralli, V., Chen, A., Nguyen, M-L., Yoshiyama, H., Morrow, W.J.W., Ho, D., and Kohler, H.:  A monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody elicits broadly neutralizing anti-gp120 antibodies in monkeys.  Proc Natl Acad Sci 89: 2546-50, 1992.
  63. Kohler, H., Goudsmit, J., and Nara, P.:  Clonal antibody dominance in HIV-1 infection:  Cause for a limited and failing immune response. J.Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5:  1158-1168, 1992.
  64. Layne, S.P., Merges, M.J., Dembo, M., Spouge, J.L., Conley, S.R., Moore, J.P., Raine, J.L., Renz, H., Gelderbloom, H.R., and Nara, P.L.: Factors underlying spontaneous inactivation and susceptibility to neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus. Virology 189: 695-714, 1992.
  65. Muller S, Nara P, D'Amelio R, Biselli R, Gold D, Wang H, Kohler H, Silverman GJ. Clonal patterns in the human immune response to HIV-1 infection Int Rev Immunol. 1992;9(1):1-13.
  66. Nara, P., Garrity, R., Minassian, A., and Goudsmit, J.: Binding of V3 specific monoclonal antibody does not always correlate with neutralization and cell fusion.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 8: 945, 1992.
  67. Nara, P., Tsai, W-P, Kung, H-F, Minassian, A., Garrity, R., Goudsmit, J., and Rimmelzwaan, G.:  Universal cellular tropism?  Nature 360: 215, 1992.
  68. Tsai, W-P., Kung, H.F., Goudsmit, J., Rimmelzwaan, G., Minassian, A., Garrity, R., and Nara, P.:  HIV-1 tropism:  Truth or consequences?  [Letter to the Editor] AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovirus. 8:  1749-1750, 1992.
  69. Akerblom, L., Nara, P., Dunlop, N., and Morein, B.: Cross-neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 in mice after immunization with gp160 iscoms. Dissection of the immune response. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 7:  621- 627, 1991.
  70. Gendelman, H.E., Ehrlich, G., Baca, L.M., Conley, S., Ribas, J., Kalter, D.C., Meltzer, M.S., Poiez, B. and Nara, P.:  The inability of human immunodeficiency virus to infect chimpanzee monocytes can be overcome by serial viral passage in vivoJ. Virol. 65:  3853-3863, 1991.
  71. Girard, M., Kieny, M.-P., Pinter, A., Barre-Sinoussi, F., Nara, P., Kolbe, H., Kusumi, K., Chaput, A., Reinhart, T., Muchmore, E., Ronco, J., Kaczorek, M.,  Bomard, E., Gluckman, J.-C. and Fultz, P.N.:  Immunization of chimpanzee confers protection against challenge with HIV.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88: 542-546, 1991.
  72. Haigwood, N.L., Nara, P., Brooks, E., Van Nest, G., Ott, G., Higgins, K., Dunlop, N., Scandella, C., Eichberg, J., and Steimer, K.:  Native but not denatured recombinant HIV-1 gp120 generates broad spectrum neutralizing antibodies in baboons.  J. Virol. 66: 172-182, 1991.
  73. Hosmalin, A., Nara, P.L., Zeig, M., Lerche, N.W., Cease, K.B., Gard, E.A., Markham, P.D., Putney,S.D.,Daniel M.D., Desrosiers, R.C. and Berzofsky, J.A.:  Priming with helper T-cell epitope peptides enhances the antibody response to the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 in primates.  J. Immunol. 146:  1667-1673, 1991.
  74. Kang, C.-Y., Nara, P., Chamat, S., Caralli, V., Ryskamp, T., Haigwood, N., Newman, R., and Kohler, H.:  Evidence for non-V3 specific neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 infected humans which interfere with gp120/CD4 binding.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88: 6171-6175, 1991.
  75. Layne, S.P., Merges, M.J., Spouge, J.L., Dembo, M., and Nara, P.L.:  Blocking of human immunodeficiency virus infection depends on cell density and viral stock age.  J. Virol. 94:  3293-3300, 1991.
  76. Tsai, W-P., Hirose, K., Nara, P.L., Kuang, Y., Conley, S., Li, B., Kung, H. and Matsushima, K.:  Decrease in cytokine production by HIV-infected macrophages in response to LPS-mediated activation.  J. Lymphokine Cytokine Res. 10: 421-9, 1991.
  77. Emini, E.A., Nara, P.L., Schleif, W.A., Lewis, J.A., Davide, J.P., Lee, D.R., Kessler, J., Conley, S., Matsushita, S., Putney, S.D., Gerety, R.J. and Eichberg, J.W.:  Antibody-mediated in vitro neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 abolishes infectivity for chimpanzees.  J. Virol.  64 (8):  3674-3678, 1990
  78. Hosoi, S., Borsos, T., Dunlop, N., and Nara, P.L.:  Heat labile, complement-like factor(s) of animal sera prevent HIV-1 infectivity in vitro.   J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 3:  366-371, 1990.
  79. Layne, S.P., Merges, M.J., Dembo, M., Spouge, J.L. and Nara, P.L.:  HIV requires multiple gp120 molecules for CD4-mediated infection.  Nature 346:  277-279, 1990.
  80. Lee-Huang, S., Huang, P.L., Nara, P.L., Chen, H.-C., Kung, H.-F., Huang, P., Huang, H.I., and Huang, P.L.:  MAP 30:  A new inhibitor of HIV-1 infection and replication.  FEBS Lett. 272:  12-18, 1990.
  81. Nara, P.L., Smit, L., Dunlop, N., Hatch, W., Merges, M., Waters, D., Kelliher, J., Gallo, R.C., Fischinger, P.J. and Goudsmit, J.: Emergence of viruses resistant to neutralization by V3-specific antibodies in experimental human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IIIB infection of chimpanzees.  J. Virol.  64:  3779-3791, 1990.
  82. Profy, A.T., Salinas, P.A., Eckler, L.I., Dunlop, N.M., Nara, P.L. and Putney, S.C.:  Epitopes recognized by the neutralizing antibodies of an HIV-1-infected individual.  J. Immunol.  144:  4641-4647, 1990.
  83. Tsai, W.-P., Nara, P.L., Kung, H.-F., and Oroszlan, S.:  Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus infectivity by chloroquine.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 6: 481-489, 1990.
  84. Vujcic, L., Katzenstein, D., Martin, M., Quinnan, G., and Collaborating Laboratories: International collaborative study to compare assays for antibodies that neutralize human immunodeficiency virus.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 6: 847-853, 1990.
  85. Zwart, G., de Jong, J.-J., van der Hoek, L., Wolfs, T., Tersmette, M., Smit, L., Nara, P., de Ronde, A., and Goudsmit, J.:  Predominance of  HIV-1 serotype distinct from LAV-1/HTLV-IIIB.  Lancet 335:  474, 1990.
  86. Arthur, L.A., Bess, J.W., Jr., Waters, D.J., Pyle, S.W., Kelliher, J.C., Nara, P.L., Krohn, K., Robey, W.G., Langlois, A.J., Gallo, R.C., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Challenge of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) immunized with human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein, gp120.  J. Virol. 63:  5046-5053, 1989.
  87. Ebbesen, P., Petersen, P.M., Jepsen, A., Norskov-Lauritsen, N., Nielsen, C.M., Philipsen, M.P., Arenholt-Bindslev, D., and Nara, P.:  Explants of human oral epithelium exposed to viruses and cancer chemotherapeutics.  J. Oral Pathol. 18:  481-484, 1989.
  88. Goudsmit, J., Kuiken, C., and Nara, P.:  Linear vs conformational variation of V3 neutralization domains of HIV-1 during experimental and natural infection.  AIDS 3:  5119-5123, 1989.
  89. Lairmore, M.D., Kaplan, J.E., Daniel, M.D., Nicholas, W.L., Nara, P.L., McClure, H.M., McVicar, J.W., McKinney, R.W., Hendry, M., Gerone, P., Rayfield, M., Johnsen, D.O., Purcell, R., Gibbs, J., Allan, J., Ribas, J.L., Klein, H.J., Jahrling, P.B., and Brown, B.:  Guidelines for the prevention of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in laboratory workers and animal handlers.  J. Med. Primatol. 18:  167-174, 1989.
  90. Nicol, I., Falmminio-Zola, G., Dubouch, P., Bernard, J., Snart, R., Jouffre, R., Reveil, B., Fouchard, M., Desportes, I., Nara, P., Gallo, R., and Zagury, D.:  Persistent HIV-2 infection of Rhesus macaque, baboon, and mangabeys.  Intervirology 30: 258-267, 1989.
  91. Nicol, I., Messinger D., Dubouch, P., Bernard, J., Desportes, I., Jouffre, R., Snart, R., Nara, P., Gallo, R.C., and Zagury, D.:  Use of Old World monkeys for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome research.  J. Med. Primatol. 18:  227-236, 1989.
  92. Nara, P., Hatch, W., Kessler, J., Kelliher, J., Carter, S., Ward, J., Looney, D., Ehrlich, G., Gendelman, H., and Gallo, R.C.:  The biology of HIV-IIIB infection in the chimpanzee:  In vivo and in vitro correlations.  J. Med. Primatol. 18:  343-355, 1989.
  93. Nara, P.L., Hwang, K.M., Rausch, D., Lifson, J.D., and Eiden, L.:  CD4-based antireceptors peptide inhibt HIV infectivity in vitro at multiple stages of the viral life cycle.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 7139-7143, 1989.
  94. Pyle, S.W., Morein, B., Bess, J.W., Jr., Akerblom, L., Nara, P.L., Nigida, S.M., Jr., Lerche, N.W., Robey, G., Gallo, R.C., Fischinger, P.J., and Arthur L.O.:  Immune response to immunostimulatory complexes (ISCOMs) prepared from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or the HIV-1 external envelope glycoprotein (gp120).  Vaccine 7: 465-473, l989.
  95. Esparza, J., et al.:  Report of a WHO workshop on the measurement and significance of neutralizing antibody to HIV and SIV.  London, 3-5 October 1988, Curr. Sci. pp. 269-274.
  96. Larimore, M.D.,Kaplan, J.E., Rayfield, M., Brown, B., McVicar, J.W., Daniel, M.D., Lerche, N.W., Nara, P.L., McClure, H.M., McKinney, R.W., Johnsen, D.O., Purcell, R., Gibbs, C.J., Jr., Hendry, M., Gerone, P., Allan, J., Ribas, J.L., Klein, H.J., and Jahrling, P.B.:  Guidelines to prevent simian immunodeficiency virus infection in laboratory workers and animal handlers.  MMWR 37: 693-704, 1988.
  97. Lifson, J.D., Hwang, K.M., Nara, P.L., Dunlop, N.M., Fraser, B., Paget, M., and Eiden, L.E.: Synthetic CD4 peptide derivates that inhibit HIV-1 infection and cytopathology.  Science 241: 712-715, 1988.
  98. Nara, P.L., and Fischinger, P.J.: Quantitative infectivity microassay for HIV-1 and 2.  Nature 331: 469-470, 1988.
  99. Nara, P.L., Robey, W.G., Pyle, S.W., Hatch, W.C., Dunlop, N.M., Bess, J.W., Jr., Kelliher, J.C., Arthur, L.O., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Purified envelope glycoproteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induce individual type-specific neutralizing antibodies.  J. Virol. 62:  2622-2628, 1988.
  100. Zagury, D., Bernard, J., Cheynier, R., Desportes, I., Leonard, R., Fouchard, M., Reveil, B., Hele, D.I., Lurhuma, Z., Mbayo, K., Wane, J., Saluan, J., Goussard, B., Dechazal, L., Burny, A., Nara, P.L., and Gallo, R.C.:  A group-specific anamnestic immune reaction against HIV-1 induced by determinants of the viral envelope glycoprotein, gp160:  A candidate vaccine prototype against AIDS.  Nature 332:  728-731, 1988.
  101. Zweig, M., Showalter, Bladen, S.D., Gilden, R.V., Robey, W.G., Nara, P.L., and Fischinger, P.J.: Preparation and characterization of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein gp41.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 4:  51-62, 1988.
  102. Arthur, L.O., Pyle, S.W., Nara, P.L., Bess, J.W., Jr., Gonda, M.A., Kelliher, J.C., Gilden, R.V., Robey, W.G., Bolognesi, D.P., Gallo, R.C., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Serological responses in chimpanzees inoculated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) subunit vaccine.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:  8583-8587, 1987.
  103. Krohn, K., Robey, W.G., Putney, S., Arthur, L., Nara, P., Fischinger, P., Gallo, R.C., Wong-Staal, F., and Ranki, A.:  Specific cellular immune response and neutralizing antibodies in goats immunized with native or recombinant envelope proteins derived from HTLV-IIIB, and in HIV-1 infected men.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 4994-4998, 1987.
  104. Nara, P.L., Robey, W.G., Arthur, L.O., and Fischinger, P.J.: Persistent infection of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1):  Serological responses and properties of reisolated viruses.  J. Virol. 61:  3173-3180, 1987.
  105. Nara, P.L., Dunlop, N.M., Robey, W.G., Olsen, R.G., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Lipoprotein-associated oncornavirus inactivating factor in the genus Mus:  Effects on murine leukemia viruses of laboratory and exotic mice.  Cancer Res. 47: 667-672, 1987.
  106. Nara, P.L., Robey, W.G., Arthur, L.O., Gonda, M.A., Asher, D.M., Yanagihara, R., Gibbs, C.J., Jr., Gajdusek, D.C., and Fischinger, P.J.: Simultaneous isolation of simian foamy virus and HTLV-III/LAV from chimpanzee lymphocytes following HTLV-III or LAV inoculation. Arch. Virol. 92:  183-186, 1987.
  107. Nara, P.L., Robey, W.G., Gonda, M.A., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Absence of cytotoxic antibody to HTLV-III infected cells in man and its induction in animals after infection or immunization with purified gp120.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 3797-3801, 1987.
  108. Nara, P.L., Hatch, W.C., Dunlop, N.M., Robey, W.G., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Simple, rapid, quantitative micro-syncytium forming assay for the detection of neutralizing antibody against infectious HTLV-III/LAV.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 3: 283-302, 1987.
  109. Robey, W.G., Nara, P.L., Poore, C.M., Popovic, M., McLane, M.F., Barin, F., Essex, M., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Rapid assessment of relationships among HTLV-III/LAV isolates by oligopeptide analyses of external envelope glycoproteins.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 3: 401-408, 1987.
  110. Ward, J.M., O'Leary, T.J., Baskin, G.B., Benveniste, R., Harris, C.A., Nara, P.L., and Rhodes, R.H.:  Immunohistochemical localization of human and simian immunodeficiency viral antigens in fixed tissue sections.  Am. J. Pathol. 127:  199-205, 1987.
  111. Nara, P.L., Krakowka, G.S., Powers, T.E., and Garg, R.C.: Experimental streptococcus equi infection in the horse:  Correla­tion of in vivo, in vitro immune responses.  Am. J. Vet. Res. 44: 529-534, 1983.
  112. Nara, P.L., Winters, K., Rice, J.B., Olsen, R.G., and Krakowka, S.: Systemic and local intestinal antibody response in dogs given both infective and inactivated canine parvovirus.  Am. J. Vet. Res. 44: 1989-1995, 1983.
  113. Nara, P.L., Davis, L.E., Lauerman, L., Coyle, J., and Paul, J.: The effects of chloramphenicol on the immune responses to canine distemper virus in beagle pups.  J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 5:  177-185, 1982.
  114. Olsen, C.G., Stiff, M.I., and Nara, P.L.:  Collection and growth of canine lymphocytes from Peyer's patches.  J. Tissue Cult. Methods 7:  103, 1982.
  115. Nara, P.L., Krakowka, S., and Powers, T.E.:  Effects of prednisolone on the development of immune responses to canine distemper virus in beagle pups.  Am. J. Vet. Res. 40: 1742-1748, 1979.

BOOK CHAPTERS/REVIEWS

  1. Nara, P.L. et.al. 2006. Enhancing Brucellosis Vaccines, Vaccine Delivery, and Surveillance Diagnostics,  for Elk and Bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area-A technical report by the United States Animal Health Association Special on Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area. Haub School and Ruckelshaus Institute of Environment and Natural Resources, U. of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
  2. Nara, P.L. and George Lin. HIV-1: Confounding Variables of Virus Neutralization. 2005. Current Drug Targets-Infectious Disorders. 5:157-170.
  3. Nara, P.L. Basic Principals of Immunity-Humoral Immunity, Chapter 1  In: Immunotherapy for Infectious Diseases Edited by Jeffery M. Jacobson, MD. Published by Humana Press 2004.
  4. Kohler, H., Muller, S., Schiffer, M., and Nara, P.L., 1999. Few Clues for AIDS Vaccines from Structural Data on gp120 and its Receptors and Antibodies J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1999 Mar 1;20(3):315-6
  5. Nara, P.L., Merges, M., Layne, S., Tsai, W-P., and Dunlop, N.M.:  Neutralization and inactivation of HIV by immunoglobulin and anti-viral immunotherapeutic agents.  In Coligan, J.E., Kruisbeek, A.M., Margulies, D.H., Shevach, E.M, and Strober, W.  (Eds.):  Current Protocols in Immunology.  New York: Greene, 1996.
  6. Nara, P.L. The Status and Role of Vaccines in the U.S. Food Animal Industry Implications for Biological Terrorism. Proceedings of the Combined Conference on Food and Agriculture Security, Wash. D.C. Sept. 28-30, 1998.  Published by the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Editors T.W. Frazier & D.C. Richardson. Vol. 894; pgs. 206-217. 1999.
  7. Nara, P.L. 1999. “An Ounce of Prevention”, Invited editorial. Vaccine 16(19): 1999.
  8. Nara, P.L. Deceptive Imprinting: Insights into Mechanisms of Immune Evasion and Vaccine Development. In Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostics:  In Advances in Veterinary Medicine. Published by Academic Press. 1999, Edited by Ronald D. Schultz; Vol. 41, pgs. 115-134.
  9. Nara, P.L. Ig class patterns during primary infection to the HIV-1 env in humans and chimpanzees: A model for clonal dominance.  In: Brown, F., Burton, D., Doherty, P., Meklanos. J., and Norrby, E.  Vaccines 97. Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, 1996, 331-337.
  10. Garrity, R.R., Lin, G., and Nara, P.L. Genetic vaccination with naked HIV-1mRNA results in low titered anti-gp120 response.  In: Brown, F., Burton, D., Doherty, P., Meklanos, J., and Norrby, E.  Vaccines 97.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, 1996.  151-156.
  11. Nara, P.L., Merges, M., Conley, S., Shaw, G., Ezekowitz, A., and Gendelman, H.: Acute phase response to primary HIV-1 infection in humans.  In Guenounou, M. (Ed.): VIH and Cytokines. Reims, France, First International Symposium on HIV and Cytokines, 1996. Chapter 2, pps.15-31.
  12. Nara, P.L.: Humoral immunity to HIV-1: Lethal force or trojan horse?  In S. Gupta (Ed.):  Immunology of HIV Infection,  New York, Plenum Publishing Corporation, Chapter 12, 1996, pp.  243-276.
  13. Nara, P.L.:  Immunotyping HIV-1 in the 1990's.  In Giraldo, G., Bolognesi, D., Salvatore, M., and Beth-Giraldo, E. (Eds.): Antibiot. Chemother., Development and Applications of Vaccines and Gene Therapy in AIDS, Vol. 48, Ms. 9.  Basel, Switzerland, S. Karger, 1996, pp. 56-62.
  14. Wu, S.-C., Spouge, J.L., and Nara, P.L.: Kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus entry affected by human plasma microenvironment.   7th Congress of the Asian-Pacific Confederation of Chemical Engineers, APCChE 96, 1996, pp. 532-536.
  15. Nara, P.L., Wu, S.-C., Merges, M., and Spouge, J.:   Plasma factors in human blood alter the entry properties of HIV-1: Implications for gp120-based vaccine approaches.  In: Brown, F., Burton, Norrby, E., D., and Mekalanos, J. (Eds.):  Vaccines 96,. Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, 1996, pp. 323-332.
  16. Nara, P.L., Wu, S.-C., Merges, M., and Spouge, J.:  Physiologic concentrations of human plasma alters the immunochemistry and increases the neutralization resistant fraction of HIV-1. In Girard, M., and Dodet, B. (Eds.): Dixieme Colloque Des Cent Gardes, Paris, Elsevier Publishers, 1995, pp. 117-125.
  17. Nara, P., Merges, M., Conley, S., Shaw, G., Ezekowitz, A., and Gendelman, H.: Acute-phase response to primary HIV-1 infection in humans.   In Brown, F., Chanock, R., Ginsberg, H., and Lerner, R. (Eds.): Vaccines 95.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1995, pp. 267-271.
  18. Berzofsky, J.A., Ahlers, J.D., Alexander-Miller, M., Tsukui, T., Pendleton, C.D., Dunlop, N., Carbone, D.P., and Nara, P.L.: Developing synthetic peptide vaccines for HIV-1.  In:  Brown, R., Chanock, R., Ginsberg, H., Lerner, R.  (Eds.):  Vaccines 95.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1995, pp. 135-142.
  19. Girard, M., Meignier, B., Matthews, T., Barre'Sinoussi, F., Nara, P., Muchmore, E., Kieny, M-P., and Fultz, P.:  Protection of chimpanzees against heterologous HIV-1 challenge.  In Girard, M. and Dodet, B., (Eds.): Colloque Des Cent Gardes, 1994,  pp. 263-266.
  20. Nara, P., Shaw, G., and Gendelman, H.: Enhancing factor(s) for HIV-1 infectivity are present in the plasma during acute infection.  In Girard, M., and Dodet, B. (Eds.): Colloque Des Cent Gardes, 1994, pp. 185-187.
  21. Garrity, R.R., Rimmelzwaan, G., Minassian, A., Tsai, W-P. Lin, G., Conley, S., Dunlop, N., DeJong, J., Keulen, W., Moore, J., Goudsmit, J., and Nara, P.: Site directed mutations introduced into the V3 domain of HIV-1 gp120 results in an augmented humoral response to other epitopes.  In Brown, R., Chanock, R., Ginsberg, H., and Lerner, R. (Eds.): Vaccines 94.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1994, pp. 261-267.
  22. Nara, P.L., Conley, S.R., and Merges, M.J.: Evidence of cryptic V3 epitope(s) on native HIV-1 virions: Immuno-physicochemical analysis.  In Brown, R., Chanock, R., Ginsberg, H., and Lerner, R. (Eds.): Vaccines 94.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1994, pp. 155-159.
  23. Berzofsky, J.A., Ahlers, J.D., Shirai, M., Pendleton, D., Takeshita, T., Dunlop, N., Minassian, A., Newman, M., and Nara, P.L.: Construction of candidate synthetic peptide vaccines for HIV-1.  In Brown, R., Chanock, R., Ginsberg, H., and Lerner, R. (Eds.): Vaccines 94.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1994, pp. 147-153.
  24. Nara, P.L.: Retrolentivirus infections in man and chimpanzees: Close enough to be different. In Eder, G., Kaiser, E., and E. King F.A. (Eds.): Vienna, Karger Publishing.  The Role of the Chimpanzee in Research, 1993, pp. 169-170.
  25. Wolfs, T.F.W., Nara, P.L., and Goudsmit, J.: Genotypic and phenotypic variation of HIV-1:  Impact on AIDS pathogenesis and vaccination. In Adorini, L., Arai, B., Fitch, F.W., Ishizaka, K., Lachmann, P.J., and Waksman, B.H. (Eds.): Immunochemistry of AIDS: Chemical Immunology, 56: 1-33, 1993.
  26. Nara, P.L., Merges, M.J., Garrity, R.R., Conley, S., Minassian, A., Tsai, W-P, Rimmelzwaan, G.F., Goudsmit, J., Muller, S., and Kohler, H.: HIV-1: Decoying the host humoral immune system through immunologic and biophysical means. In Brown, F., Chanock, R., Ginsberg, H.S., and Lerner, R. (Eds.): Vaccines 93, Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1993, pp. 167-175.
  27. Goudsmit, J., Bakker, M., deWolf, F., Langedink, H., Meloen, R., Thiriart, C., Bruck, C., McEntee, M., Narayan, O., Nara, P., and Heeney, J.: Characterization of the serological responses in experimentally infected rhesus monkeys by competition with neutralizing and nonneutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies and peptide reactivity.  In Brown, R., Chanock, R., Ginsberg, H., Lerner, R. (Eds.): Vaccines 92. Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1992, pp. 165-70.
  28. Muller, S., Nara, P., D'Amelio, R., Biselli, R., Gold, D., Wang, H., Kohler, H., and Silverman, G.J.: Clonal patterns in the human immune response to HIV-1 infection.  In Silverman, G.J., and Kohler, H. (Eds.):  Harwood Publishers, Int. Rev. Immunol., Chur, Switzerland, Vol. 9, 1992, pp. 1-13.
  29. Meltzer, M.S., Hoover, D.L., Finbloom, D.S., Turpin, J.A., Kalter, D.C., Friedman, R.M., Moyer, M.P., Nara, P., and Gendelman, H.E.: Mononuclear phagocytes in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus disease.  In Lopez-Berestein, G., and Klosterggaard, J. (Eds.): Mononuclear Phagocytes and Cell Biology. CRCPress, Boca Ratan, Florida, 1993, pp. 147-175.
  30. Lee-Huang, S., Chen, H-C., Kung, H-F., Huang, P.L., Nara, P., Li, B-Q., Huang, P., Huang, H.I., and Huang, P.L.:  Plant proteins with activity against human immunodeficiency virus.  In Chu, C.K. and Cutler, H.G. (Eds.):  Natural Products as Antiviral Agents, Plenum Press, New York, 1992,  pp. 153-170.
  31. Zolla-Pazner, S., Goudsmit, J., and Nara, P.: Characteristics of human neutralizing antibodies derived from HIV-1 infected individuals.  In Lentiviruses Vol 3, W.B. Saunders (Eds.): Philadelphia, 1992,  pp. 203-211.
  32. Nara, P.L., Minassian, A., Garrity, R., and Goudsmit, J.: Distant-site mutations in the HIV-1 envelope: Effects of binding and neutralization through the V3-and gp120-CD4 epitopes.  In Girard, M., and Vallette, L., (Eds.):  Sixieme Colloque Des Cent Gardes, Lyon, Merieux, 1992, pp. 185-192.
  33. Cease, K., Probert, W., Groeneveld, L., Dunlop, N., and Nara, P.: Neutralizing epitope mapping in HIV gp41 using peptide component immunogen walking.  In Brown, F., Chanock, R., Ginsberg, H., and Lerner, R. (Eds.): Vaccines 92.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1992, pp. 201-204.
  34. Goudsmit, J., Bakker, M., Meloen, R., deWolf, F., Thiariat, C., Bruck, C., Nara, P., McEntee, M., Narayan, O., and Heeney, J.: Characterization of type-specific antibody responses to the V2 neutralizaiton domain of SIVmac251 during serial SIVmac251 and SIVDeltaB670 in vivo passage.  In Brown, R., Chanock, R., Ginsberg, H., and Lerner, R. (Eds.): Vaccines 92.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1992, pp. 165-170.
  35. Nara, P.L., Minassian, A., Garrity, R., and Goudsmit, J.: Envelope plasticity outside the V3 and gp120-CD4 binding epitopes results in resistance to neutralization and fusion without loss of antibody binding: Implications to HIV-1 vaccine design.  In Brown, R., Chanock, R., Ginsberg, H., and Lerner, R. (Eds.):  Vaccines 92.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1992, pp. 175-181.
  36. Devash, Y., Rusche, J., and Nara, P.: Biologically functional high affinity/avidity antibodies to the HIV gp120 principal neutralizing domain (PND).  In Putney, S. (Ed.): Biotechnology Therapeutics, Special Issue on AIDS Vaccine Developments.  New York, Marcel Dekker, 1991, pp. 49-62.
  37. Moore, J.P., and Nara, P.L.: The role of the V3 domain of gp120 in HIV infection.    A year in Review AIDS, 6: S21-S33, 1991.
  38. Goudsmit, J., and Nara, P.L.: Understanding the role of the V3 domain in epidemiology and pathogenesis of AIDS.  Sixieme Colloque Des Cent Gardes Foundation.  Lyon, Merieux, 1991, pp. 165-167.
  39. Devash, Y., Rusche, J., and Nara, P.L.: Biologically functional high affinity/avidity antibodies to the HIV gp120 principal neutralizing domain (PND).  In S. Putney (Ed.): Biotechnology Theraputics, Special Issue on AIDS Vaccine Developments, 2:  49-62, 1991.
  40. Goudsmit, J., Back, N.K.T., and Nara, P.L.: Gemonic diversity and antigenic variation of HIV-1: Links between pathogenesis, epidemiology and vaccine development.  FASEB 5: 2427-2436, 1991.
  41. Nara, P.L., Garrity, R.R., and Goudsmit, J.: Neutralization of HIV-1: A paradox of humoral proportions.  FASEB 5: 2437-2455, 1991.
  42. Kieber-Emmons, T., Ulgen, K.E., Merva, M., Whalley, A., Morrow, W.J.W., Williams, W.V., Nara, P.L. and Weiner, D.B.: Engineered peptides that mimic HIV-1 neutralizing envelope structures.  In Channock, R.M., Ginsberg, H., Brown, F., and Lerner, R.A. (Eds.): Vaccines 91.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1991, pp. 165-173.
  43. Ulgen, K.E., Perussia, B., Kamoun, M., Merva, M., Williams, W.V., Nara, P., Kieber-Emmons, T. and Weiner, D.B.: Inhibition of HIV-1 cellular infection by immunologic reagents. In Channock, R.M., Ginsberg, H., Brown, F., and Lerner, R.A. (Eds.): Vaccines 91.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1991, pp. 37-44.
  44. Zwart, G., Van der Hoek, L., Langedijk, H., Back, N., Ramautarsing, C., Wolfs, T., De Jong, J., De Ronde, T., Nara, P., and Goudsmit, J.:  Antigenicity and antigenic variation of the V3 neutralization domain on the envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1.  In Channock, R.M., Ginsberg, H., Brown, F., and Lerner, R.A. (Eds.): Vaccines 91.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1991, pp. 45-50.
  45. Nicole, K.T., Back, T., Wolfs, F.W., Sun, W., Ramautarsing, C., Smit, L., Goudsmit, J., Nara, P.L. and Bruck, C.: Conformational rearrangement of the HIV-1 envelope renders viruses resistant to type-specific and broadly neutralizing antibodies.  In Channock, R.M., Ginsberg, H., Brown, F., and Lerner, R.A. (Eds.): Vaccines 91.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1991, pp. 179-182.
  46. Haigwood, N.L., Nara, P.L., Van Next, G., Scandella, C.J., Eichberg, J.W. and Steimer, K.S.: Vaccination of primates with native recombinant HIV-1 gp120 generates broad spectrum neutralizing antibodies.  In Channock, R.M., Ginsberg, H., Brown, F. and Lerner, R.A. (Eds.): Vaccines 91.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1991, pp. 51-58.
  47. Nara, P.L., and Goudsmit, J.: Clonal dominance of the neutralizing response to the HIV-1 V3 epitope: Evidence for "original antigenic sin" during vaccination and infection in animals, including humans.  In Channock, R.M., Ginsberg, H., Brown, F. and Lerner, R.A. (Eds.): Vaccines 91.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1991, pp. 37-44.
  48. Raush, D.M., Hwang, K.M., Padgett, M., Voltz, A.-H, Rivas, A., Engleman, E., Gaston, I., Fraser, B., Kalyanaraman, V.S., Nara, P.L., Dunlop, N., Martin, L., Murphey-Corb, Kibort, T., M., Lifson, J.D., and Eiden, L.E.:  Peptides derived from the CDR3-homologous domain of the CD4 molecule are specific inhibitors of HIV-1 and SIV infection, virus-induced cell fusion, and post-infection viral transmission in vitro.  Implications for the design of small-peptide anti-HIV therapeutic agents.  In St. Georgiev, V. and McGovern, J. J. (Eds.): AIDS Anti-HIV Agents, Therapies, and VaccinesAnn. of NY Acad. Sci., Vol. 616, 1990, pp. 125-148.
  49. Nara, P.L.: Quantitative assays for virus infectivity:  Quantitative infectivity syncytium-forming microassay.  In Aldovini, A. and Walker, B.D. (Eds.):  Techniques in HIV Research.  Stockton Press, New York, 1990, pp. 77-86.
  50. Goudsmit, J., Zwart, G., de Jong, J., Wolfs, T., de Ronde A. and Nara, P.L.: Antigenic variation in neutralization domains of HIV-1 strains circulating during the current AIDS epidemic: Key to rational vaccine design.  In Brown, F., Chanock, R.M., Ginsberg, H.S., and Lerner, R.A. (Eds.):  Vaccines 90.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1990, pp. 291-295.
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  53. Nara, P.L., and Dunlop, N.M.: Rapid, post-adsorption neutralization of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 by antisera from infected humans, chimpanzees and gp120-vaccinated animals.  In de The, G. (Ed.): AIDS 89-90.  New York, McGraw-Hill, 1989, pp. 223-227.
  54. Krone, W.J.A., Wolfs, T.F.W., Nara, P.L., Hartman, S., Epstein, L., Tijnagel, J. and Goudsmit, J.:  Genomic divergence within the coding sequence for the principal neutralization epitope of  HIV-1.  In Quartrieme Colloque Des Cent Gardes, Retroviruses of Human AIDS and Related Animal Diseases.  Paris, France, Marnes-La-Coquette, 1989, pp. 55-60.
  55. Pyle, S., Bess, J., Arthur, L., Morein, B., Lerche, N., Kelliher, J., and Nara, P.:  Primate immunizations with HIV-1 gp120 immuno-stimulatory complexes.  In Lerner, R.A., Ginsberg, H., Channock, R.M., and Brown, B. (Eds.): Vaccines 89.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989, pp. 201-206.
  56. Hosmalin, A.M., Nara, P.L., Zweig, M., Cease, K.B., Gard, E.A., Markham, P.D., Putney, S.D., Daniel, M.D., Desrosiers, R.C., and Berzofsky, J.A.: Enhancement of an antibody response to the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 in primates by priming with helper T-cell epitope peptides.  In Lerner, R.A., Ginsberg, H., Channock, R.M., and Brown, F. (Eds.): Vaccines 89.  Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989, pp. 121-124.
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  58. Nara, P.: The "AIDS" viruses of animals and man: Nonliving parasites of the immune system.  In Cooper, N.G. (Ed.): Los Alamos Science Magazine, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 18: 54-89, 1989.
  59. Arthur, L.O., Pyle, S.W., Nara, P.L., Bess, J.W., Jr., Kelliher, J.C., Gilden, R.V., Robey, W.G., and Fischinger, P.J.: Preparation and evaluation of an HIV-1 gp120 prototype vaccine.  In Ginsberg, H., Brown, F., Lerner, R.A., and Channock, R.M. (Eds.): Vaccines 88.  Cold Springs Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1988, pp. 277-282.
  60. Nara, P.L.: Porcine herpes virus.  In Olsen, R.G., Krakowka, S., and Blakeslee, J.R., Jr. (Eds.):  Comparative Pathobiol­ogy of Viral Diseases, Chapter 4, Vol. I.  Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1985, pp. 89-113.
  61. Nara, P.L.: Effects of corticosteroids on the immune response.  In Powers, T.C. and Bowens, C. (Eds.):  Proceedings of the 2nd Equine Pharmacology Symposium, 1979,pp. 273-274.

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